Evaluation of traditional and contemporary Management Strategies
Traditional and Contemporary Management Strategies
- Taboos on hunting particular animals related to totems.
- Limits on populations of tribes
- Nomadic lifestyle – limits damage on particular areas of the environment
- Indigenous people only taking what they need. For example, growing only enough food for a family, killing only animals they can eat or preserve for later consumption.
- Fire stick hunting
- In-depth and multi-generational knowledge of the environment.
- Custodians of land
Creative spirits - Meaning of land to Aboriginal people.
- Management occurs at a variety of scales – local, regional, national, global.
- Local: council decisions, by-laws, ordinances
- Regional: State government national parks, wilderness areas, total catchment management
- National: Maritime zoning, environmental policies, NGOs such as Clean-up Australia
- Global: Biosphere reserves, World Heritage listing.
Groups: Environmental groups try to influence decision-making processes by putting forward a particular point of view. They use people-power (mobilization) to encourage governments to make decisions in line with their point of view. Environmental groups are diverse in their scale, scope and purpose.
-responsible for planning approvals/activities. Approval is usually reliant on the completion of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
-Rely on information contained in submissions
-Can commission reports from independent agencies
-Responsible for waste disposal
-can make laws regulating the behaviour of individuals and corporations. E.g. US Endangered species Act (a law that protects threatened animal and plant species)
-At Federal and State level the Minister for Environment has authority over a number of government agencies, e.g. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
-Governments at all levels are responsible for decisions about how some fragile ecosystems are used, e.g. mining, forestry.
-Decide what areas to include as National Parks
-The Federal government can in special cases intervene and override decisions made by the State Government
- policies developed by all levels of government are often the result of compromise between various groups
Evaluate: Make judgements based on criteria, determine the value of...
The effectiveness of management strategies can be determined by examining at a variety of factors:
- Intragenerational equity
- Intergenerational equity
- The precautionary approach
- Biological diversity
- Ecologically Sustainable Development
- Are people able to benefit from the ecosystem?
- Are people able to access various parts of the ecosystem?
- Is the present generation of people able to use the resources within the ecosystem? (Consider what “use of resources” actually means)
- Is the current population able to benefit from the ecosystem’s aesthetic values (the way the ecosystem looks?)
- Is the use and management of the ecosystem maintaining the quality of the ecosystem for the future?
- Will people in the future be able to access the various parts of the ecosystem?
- Will people in the future be able to use the resources of the ecosystem?
- Is the current population able to benefit from the ecosystem’s aesthetic values (the way the ecosystem looks)?
The precautionary approach
- Has the ecosystem become more or less susceptible to human or natural stress?
- Are there attempts to improve knowledge of the threats to the ecosystem?
- Do management strategies take into account best and worst case scenarios for threats to the ecosystem?
- Are historical processes maintained (e.g the ability to adapt to changes)?
- Has there been a reduction in the size or extent of the ecosystem?
- What changes have taken place within food chain/food webs?
- Are there still as many links within the chains and webs?
- Has the diversity of the ecosystem been diminished in any way? Has there been a reduction in the number of species?
- Is genetic diversity maintained?
- Has there been a reduction or increase of any species? What impact will this have?
- Is the ecosystem still functioning effectively in terms of biological processes, etc
Ecologically Sustainable Development
- Does the management strategy address social objectives? (e.g community use, meeting the needs of different groups within the community)
- Does the management strategy address environment objectives? (e.g. protection, conservation)
- Does the management strategy address economic objectives? (e.g. job creation, economic growth)